Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de


Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de
(1712-1759)
   WM Seigneur de Saint Véran, his appointment as commander-in-chief in New France, 1; his friendship with Chevalier de Lévis, 3; birth and descent of, 3; education, 4; enters the army, 4; returns to Candiac, his birthplace, 5; his marriage, 5; colonel of Auxerrois Regiment, 6; promoted to be brigadier, 7; major-general with command of troops in North America, 7; character of, 11; his expedition sails from Brest, 12; lands at Cap Tourmente, 12; greatly interested in Quebec, 15; goes to Montreal to meet Vaudreuil, 27; king's instructions made him subordinate to Vaudreuil, 28; places troops of Fort Carillon under charge of Lévis, 32; goes to Fort Frontenac, 34; captures Oswego, 34; erects a cross in commemoration of the event, 35; calls a general assembly of the Indian warriors, 40-42; vainly endeavours to arrest massacre at Fort William Henry, 50; destroys the fort, 51; reports to home government destitute condition of country and army, 53; his victory at Fort Carillon, 54-61; erects cross with Latin inscription, 61; inveterate hatred between him and Vaudreuil, 62; returning to Quebec, finds nothing in readiness, 79; summons meeting of naval men, 80; speaks of Vaudreuil as playing the general, 83; promoted to rank of lieutenant-general, 84; sarcastic entries in his journal, 87; makes manor of De Salaberry at Beauport his headquarters, 94; his military prudence, 96; little confidence in fireships, 98; prepares for an attack on Beauport side, 104; consults Lévis as to concentration of their forces, 106; not anxious to dislodge British from left bank of Montmorency, 119; gains battle at the Montmorency River, 138-141; accuses English of scalping, 150; despondent, 151; letter to Bourlamaque, 157; rearranges his forces, 159; thought cliff above Quebec inaccessible, 160; writes to Lévis expressing desire to have him near, 165; despondent but determined to hold out, 173; completely deceived by feint made by British at Beauport, 174; his anxiety respecting boats bringing provisions, 175; learns that the British have gained the heights, 187, 188; sends forward troops and immediately follows, 188; orders all remaining troops forward, 190; disregards Vaudreuil's request not to precipitate engagement, 193; his action severely criticized, 193, 194; encourages his troops, 196; mortally wounded, 201; consulted by Vaudreuil as to best course to pursue, 212; carried into house of Dr. Arnoux, 218; his message to Townshend, 219; death and burial, 220, 221; forgotten in France, remembered and honoured in Canada, 239. P Causes of his defeat at Quebec, 143. Hd At Carillon, 18; unable to take advantage of victory there, 22; destroys fort at Oswego, 25; a forged letter of, 49; his memory green with Canadians, 122; referred to in D'Estaing's appeal, 123.
   Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight with France; Bonnechose, Montcalm et le Canada Français; Casgrain, Montcalm et Lévis; Martin, Le Marquis de Montcalm; Guérin, Montcalm; Manuscrits de Lévis, ed. by Casgrain, vols. 6 and 7.

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